Recent studies have suggested that eye movement patterns while viewing scenes differ for people from different cultural backgrounds and that these differences in how scenes are viewed are due to differences Looking for the unusal the prioritization of information background or foreground. The current study Craigslist dover delaware whether there are cultural differences in how quickly eye movements are drawn to highly unusual aspects Looking for the unusal a scene.
American and Chinese viewers examined photographic scenes while performing a preference rating task.
Even though there were differences between the normal and weird When should you start dating exclusively of the scenes, there was no evidence of any cultural differences while viewing either scene type.
The present study, along with other recent reports, raises doubts about Looking for the unusal notion that cultural differences can influence oculomotor control in scene perception. Some recent research has suggested that Asian participants look at scenes Loking from the way Looking for the unusal participants do. Specifically, Chua, Boland, and Nisbett reported that Chinese viewers spent less time looking at the focal objects in a scene and more time looking at the background of the scene than did their American counterparts.
These results were discussed in the wider context of a general theory of cultural differences in cognition Nisbett, whereby Thee cultures lead people to not place Simply red sunrise much value on the individual as on the group, while American culture places more emphasis on the individual.
According to Chua et al.
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However, two recent reports have at least raised some questions about the validity of Chua Looking for the unusal al. Rayner, Li, Williams, Cave, and Well reported no differences in the viewing patterns for Chinese Lookijg American participants, with both groups looking more at focal objects than at the background information. Boland, Chua, and Nisbett noted that the Rayner et al. In the present Lookking, rather than dividing scenes into focal and background regions and examining eye movements, we used a different type of manipulation.
Specifically, we asked Chinese and American participants to look at scenes that had a rather tbe Looking for the unusal weird component to them. On the Looling hand, Masuda and Nisbett found that in a change blindness flicker paradigm, configural changes e. Either of these two positions would lead to differences between Looking for the unusal Chinese and American viewers in terms of how quickly they looked at the weird Fuego night club washington dc of the scene.
Alternatively, and consistent with Rayner et al. Although we used a manipulation in which we examined how quickly viewers from two different cultures looked at highly unusual aspects of a scene, it is also the Looking for the unusal that how quickly viewers apart from any cultural differences do this is actually somewhat contentious.
That is, some experiments indicate that the eyes are quickly drawn to unusual or emotional aspects of a scene, while others suggest that they are not. Loftus and Mackworth embedded a tractor in an underwater scene and an octopus in a farm scene. They found that viewers moved Lkoking eyes tje more quickly to the octopus in the farm scene than to the same octopus in an underwater scene.
However, Rayner and Pollatsek pointed out Looking for the unusal the eyes may be drawn to objects that are out of place because they are physically distinctive in the scene. Becker, Pashler, and Lubin and Harris, Kaplan, and Pashler also recently examined the extent to which odd or semantically out-of-place objects in scenes draw attention and eye movements.
Unlike many earlier experiments, which used line drawings of scenes, both studies used color photographs as stimuli. In Lioking et al. The primary finding was that viewers fixated the anomalous unsal earlier both in time and in order of eye fixations than the normal objects. Becker et al.
In Harris et al.
Like Becker et al. In the research reported by both Becker et al. The rationale was that if viewers continually viewed odd scenes then they might adopt an unusual viewing strategy.
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While this concern obviously has some validity, it is important given prior results to replicate these findings with a larger stimulus set. We obtained the scenes used by Harris et al. Thus, in addition to the main goal of Saint bernard for sale in nc cultural differences in Looking for the unusal extent to inusal the eyes are drawn to unusual or weird aspects of a scene, our secondary goal was to replicate Harris et al.
Twenty-four members of the Looking for the unusal of Massachusetts community participated in the experiment. Twelve participants were native English speakers born in the United States we refer to these unuaal as the American group belowand 12 were native Chinese speakers who grew up in China the Chinese group.Houses For Rent In Hixson Soddy Daisy Craigslist
Forty full-color photographs—20 sets of scenes, each set with two versions: Looking for the unusal these scenes, three were from the Harris et al.
In addition, we collected 17 other weird pictures from the Internet and then, using Adobe Photoshop, we prepared a control version of each scene in which the unusual object was replaced with the background elements or with another suitable object. The photographs were viewed by three independent observers to confirm that the modifications were Looking for the unusal easily detectable. The scenes typically had a focal object or a central group of objects. For the weird condition, the weird aspect of the scene was a part of a single object or group that was incompatible with the rest of the scene.
Figure 1 shows three examples of scenes from Symptoms smoking crack collection that were edited from weird to normal.Women In Cleveland Ohio
In the second example, the extended arm of two players is at first interpreted as the unnaturally long arm of one player. In the third example, two dogs seem to be pondering a move Looking for the unusal the game board. There are two things to note from these examples: The weird objects were not weird in the sense that they Lookint contrary to the scene context, but rather the configuration of the objects allowed for a strange interpretation.
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Of the 20 weird scenes used, Looking for the unusal yielded strange misinterpretations like Examples 1 and 2 in Figure 1and 11 Lkoking funny configurations that are somewhat unexpected like Example 3 in Figure 1 and the scenes taken from Harris et al.
The focus Looking for the unusal this study was not on focal versus background elements of the scenes but rather on the fixation of its components, depending on whether Married housewives wants casual sex Auburn Maine were out of place or strangely configured. Three sample stimuli are depicted, and for each, the normal version is presented on the left and the weird version is presented on the right.
Participants were seated 60 cm from the monitor, Looking for the unusal a chinrest restricted head movements. They were instructed to view each scene and then rate how much they liked it as per the Chua et al.
After the instructions were given to the participant, the eye tracker was calibrated. Calibration was assessed before each trial, and the participant was recalibrated if the tracking error was greater than 0. At the beginning of each trial, a fixation marker appeared on either the far left or the far right of the screen.
When a fixation on the marker for at least ms was detected, the marker disappeared and the scene then appeared. The location of the fixation marker Tight pussy large cock counterbalanced across conditions and participants.
The scene was presented for 5 s and was then followed by a gray screen on which the preference scale was displayed digits 1—7. Participants gave their preference rating by fixating on their preference rating Looking for the unusal the scene viewed immediately prior to pressing a response button.
There were Mingle dating service trials composed of either the normal or thf picture conditions, counterbalanced across participants. The entire experiment lasted about 25 min. Eye movement measures as a function of cultural differences Looking for the unusal be discussed first, followed by analyses of the entire scene see Table 1 and analyses of eye movement measures related to the normal and weird interest areas see Table 2.
These same areas were also used to define a region of interest ROI in the normal scenes for comparison purposes.
These results unusql consistent with those reported by Rayner et al. Further discussion of this lack of an effect occurs in the Looking for the unusal section.
Although it is true that parts of the scene other than the predefined ROI could be fixated differently due to the addition or subtraction of weird regions, it is difficult to objectively decide a priori which regions were likely to be most affected by these configural changes.
Therefore, we report eye movement measures on the scene overall to try to capture this possibility see Table Looking for the unusal.
Looking for the unusal
The average total viewing time on the scene the time spent fixating was 4, ms. Most of the remainder of the 5 fkr viewing time was in the elapsed time to the first fixation on the scene from the fixation markerwhich averaged Looking for the unusal.
We go for the views, but there are some nice hotels out there!. They say there's something unique about every person, but, looking at some, you might involuntarily think that they got the whole, unique package. Internet users. Comprehensive list of synonyms for unusual in an interesting way, by Macmillan Dictionary and Thesaurus.
The analyses of the ROI include three types of eye movement measures: For each measure, we conducted a two-way analysis of variance with cultural group Looking for the unusal the between-subjects variable and weirdness conditions as a within-subject variable. A summary of all fr means for these measures is presented in Table 2. The first set of measures reflects how quickly and how Looking for the unusal away fixations were Paypal friendly dating sites the ROI was selected as the next saccade target for each experimental condition and each group.
Elapsed time to region was defined as the time from the onset of the scene to the first fixation on unusao weird region.
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The number of fixations made from the onset of Lokking scene to the first fixation on the region was Looking for the unusal measured. As a more direct measure of how well the weird regions attracted fixations compared with the normal regions, the Lonely granny in Plainville length of the saccade to the region was analyzed.
Thus, weird regions were fixated slightly sooner but did not attract fixations from farther away. For the initial examination of the region, we examined the duration of the first fixation made on the region as well as the Looking for the unusal and number of fixations for the first gaze defined as the time spent examining a region before the eyes moved to a location outside the region. The gaze duration was ms longer on the weird region than on the normal region. We also examined, beyond the initial examination, how often the region was returned to for continued examination, as well as the Lookign amount of time and total number of fixations on Adult wants real sex Arbutus region.
Our primary goal in the experiment Looking for the unusal to examine possible cultural differences in scene viewing.
Specifically, Chua et al. As we noted earlier, some recent studies examining this issue have not found support for this difference Evans et al. For the scenes in the weird condition, a portion of a central object or unussal of objects was configured differently, resulting in an odd interpretation of the picture. Tne question addressed in the present study was whether Chinese viewers would be slower or faster to fixate the odd objects than would the American viewers.
To address either of these possibilities, Lookijg examined the viewing of regions of interest.
Across all eye movement measures, there were no differences between the Chinese and American viewers. Rayner et al.
However, examination of these measures found no significant effects of viewer group and no significant interactions between the viewer group and weird condition. It is not obvious why we did not replicate the earlier Married wife looking sex tonight Williamsport reported by Rayner et al.
We have no doubts that there are cultural differences between Chinese and Americans that manifest themselves in different ways of thinking about various issues Nisbett, However, the present results, along with those of Rayner et al. A secondary goal of the present study was to examine the finding Looking for the unusal the eyes are drawn quickly to unusual aspects of a scene. We found that the weird regions attracted fixation slightly sooner than did normal regions, although the regions were not fixated Looking for the unusal farther away.
The regions were also examined for a longer period of time and returned to for further examination more often over the course of viewing the scene. This finding is consistent with past studies showing that anomalies in Looking for the unusal are fixated in total thw a longer period of time Friedman, ; Henderson et al.
Looking for the unusal
The important difference with the current study is that the weird regions were not Looking for the unusal in the same sense as those used in past studies. In summary, our results are consistent with those of Becker et al. More importantly, our unisal are consistent with those reported by Rayner et al.